Category: Technology

Hidden Hindrance to Virtualization Performance

More specifically, it is the creation of one or more virtual instances of a “guest” operating system on top of a “host” operating system, or in some cases directly on top of a specialized software layer. It allows numerous virtual machines, either standard PCs or servers, to operate and appear as independent machines when in fact they’re operating off of a single hardware platform.

Many software providers from large to small are in the race to offer virtualization solutions, and many enterprises are taking advantage. While this futuristic technology certainly offers many benefits, it has one critical challenge to its overall performance–disk file fragmentation.

File fragmentation–the splitting of files into pieces (fragments) in order to better utilize disk space–is a performance challenge in non-virtual environments, and has been for many years. But virtualization brings with it even more critical fragmentation issues, requiring solutions like never before.

The key to understanding fragmentation’s impact on virtualization lies within the word “virtual” itself. For storage, virtual machines are making use of hard drive partitions which appear as entire drives dedicated to the virtual machines. But underneath the “virtual” layer, the hardware is storing files the way it always has, utilizing an entire disk and fragmenting files from all partitions across the whole disk.

Virtual machines have their own I/O requests which are passed along to the host system. Hence, multiple I/O requests are occurring for each file request–minimally, one request for the guest system, then another for the host system. But in a common fragmentation scenario, especially with virtual servers creating high amounts of disk activity, files will be fragmented in to tens, hundreds or even thousands of fragments. Imagine the frantic activity with multiple I/Os for each fragment of each and every file requested. The impact on performance is horrendous.

With virtualization, regular defragmentation is vital–but so is the fragmentation technology utilized. Basic defragmentation, even scheduled defragmentation, cannot possibly keep up with the fragmentation rates of virtualization. The best possible solution, one which is only now becoming available, is a constant background defragmentation solution which has no impact on system resources.

Measuring Signals

The signals are displayed first in a pattern then the spectrum analyzer plots the amplitudes on the vertical axis and the frequencies on the horizontal axis. The vertical axis represents the strength of the signal while the horizontal axis represents the time based frequencies.

The spectrum analyzer is different from an oscilloscope, another device that measures signals. One of the basic differences is that a spectrum analyzer shows the received signal strength against the frequency while an oscilloscope displays received signal strength against time. This makes the spectrum analyzer useful for measuring and studying the amplitude response of a device against a frequency. Measurement output of spectrums is in decibels or dbm while in oscilloscopes, the measurement output is in volts.

Moreover, an oscilloscope is unable to measure very low voltage levels and for that matter it is used mainly for low frequencies and high amplitude measurements only. But in the case of spectrum analyzers, the device can measure as low as -120 dBm in amplitude and as high as 150GHz in frequencies. Because of the things that spectrum analyzers can do, the device components are usually more complex than that of an oscilloscope making the former a little more expensive that the latter.

The spectrum analyzer has a number of uses. The machine can be used to conduct device frequency response measurements which basically mean measuring the amplitude response of a device against its frequency. You can also conduct microwave tower monitoring with the spectrum analyzer. By using the analyzer, you will be able to measure the transmission and receiver strength of a tower. With the analyzer, you could also do interference measurements allowing you to verify and identify interferences in large RF installations. A spectrum analyzer can also do return-loss measurement, spurious signals measurement, inter-modulation measurements, satellite antenna alignment and harmonic measurements.

Some of the basic features of a spectrum analyzer include color displays; continuous 30 Hz to 26.5 GHz sweep or more depending on the machine; precision time base and 1 Hz counter resolution; fast digital resolution bandwidths, adjacent channel power, channel power, carrier power, occupied bandwidth percentage and time-gated measurements standard; settings that can conduct digital radio and phase noise measurements; and an easily transfer screen image or trace data.

Remanufactured Ink Cartridges

Remanufactured ink cartridges are generally backed by an exclusive 100% guarantee to ensure your complete satisfaction. Some sellers give remanufactured ink cartridges with a warranty that even covers your machine. In some cases, these remanufactured ink cartridges actually contain more ink than the originals.

Remanufactured ink cartridges are professionally remanufactured inkjet cartridges that have been used once and have been recharged. Each cartridge and its print-head nozzles are thoroughly cleaned and filled with the same type of premium ink, checked for the correct internal pressure after inspection for any possible cover leakage and finally ran through a print test. Such a cartridge that passes these rigid quality check standards can only be termed “remanufactured.” It is generally seen that most remanufactured cartridges are 100% guaranteed.

Remanufactured ink cartridges are a practical alternative to branded ink cartridge. Since these remanufactured ink cartridges undergo stringent testing, they are an excellent alternative to meet your printing requirements. Many online sites such as atlanticinkjet.com offer quality remanufactured ink cartridges online.

Turning Up the Heat

For instance, atmospheric temperatures determine weather. This in turn will determine what we will wear and what activities we can and cannot do. On a more macro level, temperature is a key component to maintaining the order and flow of certain manufacturing processes. So you see, from cooking to complicated industrialized processes, the importance that the nature of temperature plays is very important.

The role of temperature in the manufacturing business is entrenched in the fact that as a physical property, temperature is a key factor that needs to be considered in almost all fields of science.

As we know, science is behind all processing and manufacturing processes in industries. Because of this fact, all special manufacturing processes entail the proper temperature calibration. Each sub process in any manufacturing system will mostly likely need temperature calibration, although it is probably most important in processes that involve chemical reactions.

The process of temperature calibration can be tedious considering that careful monitoring must be in place to ensure the proper temperatures needed all the time. Luckily, temperature calibration systems have been developed to help make temperature calibration easier and faster that helps you cut down on costs.

Although initially, the price of purchase of a temperature calibration system may seem like a lot. However, you must think of it as wise investment. After all, acquiring a reliable temperature calibration system will protect you against risk of errors in manual temperature calibration. Whatever kind of chemical and manufacturing process you have, there is temperature calibration system that is just right for you.

Check around with reliable systems solutions provider. You may also check online for automated systems that run on sophisticated temperature calibration programs to help you out. You can choose from temperature calibration systems that are fully automated or one with the system that allows for manual adjustments. You may also choose one that will allow you to run your system remotely.

All of these aspects of a temperature calibration system will help you save on time, effort and costs that may incur from error in a system that doesn’t have a solid temperature calibration program in place. Do your research on the best temperature calibration in the market that will fit your needs, fulfill your requirements and fit into your budget.

Technology Time Sharing

These computers can also be used to track down criminals, by scanning the Internet or databases. These computers can be used for doing genetic manipulation research to prevent disease and problems in the human body. Unfortunately, we do not have enough of these supercomputers yet and therefore different groups must share the technology.

One problem we have with technology Time-sharing for supercomputers is that there are politics involved in the allocating of resources. A cure for cancer is indeed a very important allocation of such resources, but so is an approaching hurricane at the same time or perhaps we are trying to track sneaky bad guys or international terrorists.

You can see how the politics of allocating supercomputer resources can be very important and perhaps you can also see the problems involved. In fact there are so many uses for number crunching such as a NASA space program or figuring out a difficult mathematical problem that there is a lot a competition.

It is important to prioritize what is the most compelling need of the technology and of course those computers should be used for that first. If our nation is at war the supercomputers can come in handy for many things indeed.

However, we should not forget that the forward progression of the human species and science is also important although perhaps not as pressing at the very moment that the military needs the computers. Perhaps you might consider all this in 2006 and join me in promoting the purchase of more supercomputers.

Power Supply Repair Safety

If you want to check the hot section in a power supply, always use the one hand ‘rule’ so that it would not complete a path for current to flows through your body just in case if you were to accidentally touched a live connection or cable. If you are tired and weak, do not repair any electronic equipment or else you might end up causing more problems for the equipment by replacing a wrong component. Take a break and come back to tackle the problem when you are fresh again.

Always use original part numbers for replacement when dealing with components in the critical section such as the fuse area. If the fuse rating is 3 ampere, then you must replace it with the same value which is 3 ampere. Sometimes a slightly higher ampere such as 3.15 ampere may be acceptable. Do not use a 10 or 15 ampere for replacements otherwise fire may occurred due to over current because the fuse may not melt.

The main filter capacitor with a high capacitance and voltage must be installed in the correct location. The positive marking at the capacitor must be inserted to the hole where it printed (+) and a negative marking to (-). A wrongly installed filter capacitor can cause the filter capacitor to explode and may injure your face if you are near to it. In some severed cases, the blown capacitor may burn the power supply as well.

Lastly, don’t because of this information explained above scared you away from repairing a power supply. Just make sure you understood the power supply repair safety first and things will become easier. Understanding the safety procedure above can protect your life.

CRT Monitors

For CRT, pricing is the clear plus, costing much less than other forms of technology such as LCD or plasma. They also last longer, giving you more shelf life for your money. They can endure lots of heat so don’t expect LCD’s to hold up in extreme heat like a CRT can. So, on the face of it CRT has an advantage or two over other monitor types.

But, CRT image quality is still not good – that is not to say it is bad either – but other forms of monitors are much better. The average CRT monitor is much heavier, and bulkier than their slimmer counterparts. And, CRT monitors should never be left on too long as they can ‘burn’ an image of what is on the screen into the monitor. With today’s ever expanding screen size, CRT’s can never exceed 40 inches, so you will have to opt for a different monitor if you wish for a larger screen.

CRT is here to stay, for the time being, because of its good pricing and excellent image quality. If you want to upgrade to the likes of LCD or plasma, be prepared to shell out extra money. If you are on a budget, it is recommended you stick with the CRT, at least for the time being.

External Laptop Batteries

External laptop batteries are very cheap and can be charged by an external battery charger. A laptop user can make a decision about the chemical that is used for manufacturing these batteries such as Nickel Cadmium or NiCd, Nickel metal hydride or NiMH, Lithium ion or Li-ion batteries.

The price of an external battery may vary from $120 to $200 and these batteries are available on the Internet as well as in the regular market. As computers and other related appliances are becoming cheaper, the prices of laptops are also dropping. This means that more and more people are using laptop and for longer periods. These batteries are ideal for those who want an extended power source for their laptops when they are traveling. An external laptop battery connects to a laptop through an AC adapter plug and usually have two output levels. It consists of an adapter, a chord and thirteen other connectors. Another advantage that these batteries provide is that they are universal in nature. This means that an external power battery that is manufactured by a particular company can be used with a laptop of another make and model.

External laptop batteries are revolutionizing the IT world by providing more mobility and extended power for those who want to use the laptop for more than two hours without worrying about power interruptions.

Countries May Dive Into Data-Sharing Pacts

“The current legal assistance process can take up to two years, but the agreement will reduce this time period considerably while protecting privacy and enhancing civil liberties,” the U.S. Department of Justice said in a statement.

Countries And Legal Systems

The CLOUD Act comes more than a year after the U.S. Congress authorized entering into agreements with rights-respecting foreign companies that allow access to electronic data for certain criminal investigations. The accord will enter into force after a six-month congressional review and after British Parliament review.

Observers say the agreement updates the two countries’ law enforcement capabilities in a world of fast-changing technology and exploding amounts of data.

“In the broader sense, this agreement represents progress towards putting in place the new types of agreements that are needed to manage legitimate issues, like cross-border data flows,” says Nigel Cory, associate director for trade policy at the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation in Washington, D.C. “It’s a positive approach that countries can take to address what is a legitimate concern without resorting to harmful other approaches such as local data storage and stuff.”

But the CLOUD Act has also been met with skepticism, with the Electronic Frontier Foundation, or EFF, warning that user data privacy is still at risk. Under the CLOUD Act, they say, police will have the right to request data from foreign companies, provided the data belongs to one of their citizens. Yet in some situations, adjacent user data can also be exposed, says EFF.

For example, if British police were to request a U.S. technology company for access to digital correspondence between a British citizen in the U.S. accused of fraud and another U.S. citizen, the messages could be used to criminally charge the American with unrelated crimes.

“Why should a U.S. person worry about their privacy when foreign governments can’t specifically request their data?” asked David Ruiz, former activist at the EFF, in a blog post. “Because even though foreign governments can’t request U.S. person data, that doesn’t mean they won’t get it.”

Who’ll Follow and Why?

The U.S.-U.K. agreement is the first of the executive agreements envisioned under the CLOUD Act, Cory says. Before the CLOUD Act, gathering foreign digital data for ongoing criminal investigations was a laborious process. For instance, if the U.S. requested digital evidence from countries such as Ireland, it could take up to 18 months to receive the information needed, dragging all criminal investigations. A similar request for data from the U.S. to Mexico in 2010 delayed a civil asset forfeiture case for more than three years because the U.S. government faced “significant challenges” obtaining formal evidence from Mexico even after appealing to the Mexican government multiple times.

This can now change, as the CLOUD Act’s mission is to make data requests more efficient with several countries willing to sign such agreements. The U.S. government has announced it is already looking into similar discussions with the European Union, while negotiations with Australia were announced in early October. In addition, there are talks about a potential agreement with India, who is grappling with a divide about updating its framework for law enforcement access to data for their investigation, Cory says. New Zealand and Canada also may follow, as well as Singapore or Japan.

“The United States is pursuing these agreements initially with those countries where it will probably happen the quickest because they’re already at a high level of engagement and of a relationship to work on,” he adds. “And once the template becomes more set in stone, it’ll make it easier for subsequent negotiations with other countries.”

Sheet Fed Scanner

Small Sheet-fed scanners are available for as little as $200. Sheet-fed scanners are ideal for the business cards, handwritten notes, letters, and Photographs. Sheet-fed scanner allows scanning, faxing, and copying. There are many ways in which the documents can be feed into the scanner, By resting the sheet-fed scanner on its sides of the main body you can feed the document from different positions: when resting on the base plate it allows a horizontal feed-in and feed-out of the document; when on the first inclined side the inclined is in such a way that it allows a top feed-in and bottom feed-out; and when resting on the second inclined side, that allows an inclined bottom feed-in and top feed-out. Most inexpensive sheet-fed scanners are designed for black-and-white work, although newer models can handle color. You can find sheet-fed scanners that plug into your computer’s port. Disadvantages of sheet-fed scanners are that they generally can’t produce the image quality that flatbeds. Mainly because they’re trying to hit a moving target: a sheet of paper traveling over rollers. Unfortunately, not every document will feed through a sheet-fed scanner, and each sheet has to be fed one at a time. Feeding page after page into sheet-fed scanners can become quite tedious.

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