Author: Arthur Froost

Learn Electronics

Go to the library. The library is the haven for books. There, you can find different books about different topics which make the library the best place to gather information. You can go to the engineering section, if your library has one. You can either read books or journals that will give you knowledge about the basics of electronics. If you can, find those books with CD so it will be easier for you to study.

Surf the internet. With the modern world, it is very easy to search things on the internet nowadays. You can search various subjects such as how to light a bulb and how to make your own light bulb. This humongous amount of information makes the internet another great place to learn about electronics. Make use of the search box and type the keywords. Once you have entered the keywords, you will have plenty of study materials to work on.

Enroll in online classes. Aside from getting random information about electronics on the internet, you can also sign up for online courses. There are different websites today that offer free online courses. Normally, they have trial periods so make use of the time wisely in order to gauge if the course is good or not. Be wary of scams though or you may lose your money for nothing.

Identify what you want to study. Electronics is very broad. Once you have read several materials about it, then you have to identify which part of electronics you want to focus on. You can choose household electronics if you are interested in household stuff or digital electronics if you are interested in gadgets. It is better to be specific so it will be easier for you to get materials to study.

Apply what you have studied. You should not only study the theories but you have to apply them as well into real life. Applying electronics is far more interesting than just reading the concepts. Being able to create or re-invent something will make you feel really awesome. For instance, if you are interested in household electronics, then find some electrical items that are no longer in use in your house. Make that appliance your practice item. Open it up and examine it. Disassemble it and then try to put it back as well. Of course, there will be times when you will fail but that is part of learning too. Remember that famous scientists did not study the concepts. They practiced and explored things before they were able to develop the concepts.

There you are! You now know where to start in studying electronics. All you need are useful materials and a willing mind to study the basics and applying them.

Green Laser Pointers

The green beam is produced at a visible light frequency of 532nm and utilizes “frequency doubling” crystal technology in order to produce the bright green light. The crystal actually produces an IR (infrared) beam at around 808nm which is doubled and then collimated producing the illuminating green laser light.

Hand held pointers are a very practical form of technology, but they have also found a strong hold amongst gadget enthusiasts and laser astronomers alike. Green lasers are so useful for astronomy applications because of how bright the beam is. For years the only available form of hand held laser technology came available to produce the red laser beam. This is less bright in comparison to a green beam, so as technology improved and pointers became widely available for lower costs, the entire community of astronomy slowly but surely updated their tools to meet current standards.

Learning is far easier when a beam is clearly visible through the night sky and green lasers can even be used during broad daylight at certain higher powers. Technology has allowed for world record breaking lasers which are capable or producing a beam visible at a distance of 100 miles or more. Its just too bad the earths curvature only allows for 12 miles of this beam to be seen on a flat surface, but that still does not take away from the fact that certain units are the worlds brightest life saving flares.

SCUBA divers from around the world have taken advantage of submergible products a safety tools as well as a source of light under water. These professional grade hand held units are not only available to professionals though, anyone with the right budget can obtain one of these exclusive laser pieces if you know where to look. Green laser pointers are not toys and should be handled with extreme care. Because so many products produce high output powers and produce intense light radiation, laser safety and education is a must for safe green laser use.

Handy Electronic Gadgets

So many electronic stores have opened to sell electronic gadgets. The mushrooming of these stores is brought about by a significant increase in demand in the market. After all, in these modern times, almost everyone is indulging to electronic gadgets, one way or another.

The rise of the electronics industry is also an obvious indication that we now live in a world of technology. Wherever we look, be it in the offices or in the comforts of our own homes, technology is prevalent.

The handy electronic gadgets are used for people to communicate, to listen to music, to exercise, to write down notes, and play games. There are also electronic gadgets where movies can be viewed, along with other entertainment shows like concerts or instructional videos. There are also electronic gadgets that take photographs or print pictures.

Indeed, these gadgets were only thought of yesterday. It has radically changed the lives of many people, significantly making work much easier than ever before. these handy gadgets replaced the menial ways of doing things.

There are a thousand of invented electronic gadgets to this day, and more and more are being invented to meet the demands of the market. But here we will look into the more popular ones being used, like projectors, digital cameras, mp3 players, game consoles, electronic notebooks, and cellular phones.

There are so many kinds of projectors that are used today. They may refer to a video projector for home theater system and computer, or movie projectors that project films to a screen inside the movie theater.

A slide projector projects still image in a transparent base. An overhead projector projects transparent images. An opaque projector is considered an overhead projector’s predecessor. The magic lantern is a historic projection device. The camera obscura is the historic ancestor of projection devices. The enlarger is also a kind of projector used to produce photo prints from negatives.

A ceiling projector is used to measure the clouds’ height. There is also a projector album that is used to enlarge and view still pictures.

Another very popular handy electronics gadget is digital cameras. Cameras have been a long time invention, used to take photographs. But digital cameras are now more advanced and have become more portable. It has significantly decreased its price also which makes this gadget more affordable to many.

Digital cameras record images digitally through electronic image sensor, instead of using films. There are also compact digital still cameras that can be able to record not just moving videos but also record sound.

Digital cameras can also display images on the screen right after the image has been recorded. Despite its small memory device, it can store thousands of images and record both video and sound. It can also conveniently delete images that did not satisfy the user, or to free up storage space.

Digital cameras can be hooked up with so many devices from cellular phones, computers, digital handheld devices to vehicles.

Mp3 players are portable audio devices. This is used to listen to songs primarily, but can also be used to listen to other audio files. Some people use the cords of USB to connect this to the computer. Mp3 players are convenient companions when traveling alone, jogging, working out in the gym, or enjoying a stroll in the park.

Cellular phones are one of the most useful electronics gadget ever invented. These are devices used for mobile voice and data communication. It functions like any ordinary phone, but is cordless and therefore can be brought anywhere. They are used for additional services and accessories like SMS for text messaging, packet switching for Internet access, email, Bluetooth, gaming, infrared, MMS for photos, and video and video recorder camera.

A game console is an electronic device that produces video display signal. This can be used with display devices to be able to display a video game.

Electronic notebook is used as an alternative to the ordinary notebook. It is used to record important data electronically. This gadget conveniently replaces the rudiments of a pen and paper. it also works more efficiently.

There are many more electronic gadgets available in the market. The computers that we use are also electronic gadgets used in homes, schools and offices. There is also the newest version of personal computers which is the laptop.

There electronic gadgets that are present are made of the highest technologies. They are made to make the life of every person easy and handy.

Printer Fuser Units

Fuser Units

A fuser unit is the part in a laser printer that creates pressure and heat to fuse toner to the paper. Not all of the parts go bad in the whole assembly when they wear out. The main part that wears out is the upper heat roller or the heat sleeve. The coating wears off and causes the toner to not fuse properly. There are replacement rollers and sleeves on the market that you can replace and turn a non-functional fuser into a good working one.

Rebuilding fuser assemblies is not a new thing. Copier technicians have been doing it for years since the first office copier was created. When the fuser wears on any copier they replace certain parts some of which are, the upper heat roller, lower heat roller, bearings, picker fingers, thermistors, drive gears and more. The printer industry has a different approach in that they replace everything as an assembly. People are accustomed to this and when they need a replacement fuser they opt for a new one many times. I believe it is a mind set. A copier service person would look at it as a waste of money. Why buy a new one when you can buy the replacement parts for a fraction of the cost and install them and make it as good as new. You must be cautious when purchasing replacement parts because there are some replacement parts that are sub par, so finding a good parts source is imperative.

Refurbished Fusers

Pros Cost much less than a new assembly.

Cons Higher defect rate if you don’t find a quality manufacturer.

New Original Fusers

Pros You know for sure that what you are getting is as good as there is.

Cons Cost is much higher than a refurbished fuser. These too can be defective out of the box.

I have replaced many fusers and believe that using refurbished fusers is the way to go. It will not harm the machine and I have seen refurbished fusers last longer than new fusers. You will save money and don’t forget about the recycling aspect. There could be tons of old fuser cores in the land fills if it wasn’t for refurbished fusers. The pros out way the cons when it comes to refurbished fuser units. It is critical that you find quality refurbished fusers with a good warranty and you will save a lot of money while helping keep our landfills from filling up with old fuser units.

Transistor Cross Reference

The famous transistor cross reference book is the Philip ECG semiconductor master replacement guide. In the content you can find all kind of electronic components specification and ic schematic too. It is one of the must ‘have’ semiconductor guide for those who love electronic troubleshooting. The internal diagram or layout of ic is clearly drawn and the transistor parameters were also listed in this book. The price of this guide is not expensive and as an electronic repairer you should buy one. Just imagine without this book, you will be facing difficulty finding the right component for substitution.

In this book, many types of transistor data and specification were listed such as the bipolar transistor, silicon controlled rectifier, fet field effect transistor (Mosfet), junction field effect transistor (jfet), signal transistors, high voltage transistor such as the horizontal output transistor (HOT), silicon power transistor, surface mounted transistor, digital transistor and many other types. Although you can find a substitution part number from the normal transistor data guide book, the ECG philips master replacement book is more informative. The normal transistor replacement book only provide the voltage (v), current (amp) and wattage (w) rating for HOT but the ECG master equivalent guide show beyond than that such as the frequency , current gain (hfe) and the outlook too . Other than HOT, the normal transistor data book gives a superb or quite accurate comparison part number for you to refer.

There is one secret that I want to share to you about transistor cross reference equivalent. If you are searching substitution part number for a signal transistor, a higher voltage, ampere, and wattage will be enough but not in the case if you want to find a substitution part number for horizontal output transistor (HOT). Higher voltage, ampere and wattage will not always work because there is few more parameter that you need to take into consideration. You may ask why the transistor blow even if it has a higher voltage, higher current and higher wattage compare to the original one.

The other parameter that you need to see is the switching time which we call it the storage and fall time. Different HOT have different spec, if you really want to find a substitution for HOT, make sure you check out the storage and fall time parameter besides the higher voltage, current and wattage rating. Searching the internet for the components specification is easy-just type in the component part number follow by datasheet, data sheet, specification, spec, data, equivalent, part number, identification, marking, pinout, types, codes and cross reference. Usually the manufacturer’s website will appear and follows by other electronic supplier website. Click on the websites that you think is relevant to your search and hope you will get what you are searching.

As for the above secret, actually I have tested on quite a numbers of Monitor with the storage and fall time slightly out from the original parameter. After the replacement, the Monitor works fine but only for a very short period before it gets very hot. If I continue to let the Monitor run, I believe the HOT will blow! When I replaced the HOT with another equivalent part number that have the specification about the same as the original one, (especially the storage and fall time), the Monitor run perfectly well. My rule of thumb is, always get the exact part number first before using other number that you found from transistor cross reference book.

Electronics Engineering

Usually an aspiring student can opt for one or the other degree- either a Bachelor of Engineering or Masters in Engineering. Different countries have different durations for these courses and in US, different universities can offer degrees of different durations as well. Engineering are of usually three years or even four with the last two years focusing on specialization of subjects. The Masters course can be of four years depending upon the country and their educational systems. Now what exactly does an Electronic course offer its students? Satellites to internet to microcomputers to the very petty switches of our rooms, all are the boon of electronics. Electronics and its related engineering concepts are the basis of all these developments which students study. Anything that involves electrical power from superconductors to electromagnets, they are subjects which require logical and creative thinking. Computer applications and electronics are related somehow and thus the courses will usually involve one or the other form of programming.

Every course related to electronic engineering has specific interests and their study structure is not similar. But with undergraduate courses, students are expected to focus more on their mathematics and physics understanding in the initial two years and thus strengthening the foundations of understanding. In these early years, a substantial amount of lab work is done in order to closely observe circuits and their varied understandings and interpretations. Some of the fields where students might work on are telecommunications, software development, and robotics and this is when project work is indispensable as students are required to put in their ideas using the project designs.

The Masters of Engineering further narrows down one’s chosen field of interests and presents an in-depth study which will help one in their upcoming workplace. After gaining proper knowledge one can use their interest in maths and sciences for practical use in technology and its related affairs.

With a large number of students opting for electronic course and engineering as a field of study, it is crucial that one scores good marks in order to get accepted in these universities as the level of competition amongst students is pretty high. And with technology improving day by day, students with the right potential have a lot of areas where they can put their knowledge to proper use. Telecommunication companies, software companies are some of the few where engineers are in demand.

Computer Monitors


Flat panel LCD monitors look great and will save room on your desk; CRT monitors also work well and can be less expensive. Most new desktop computers include two connectors to support dual monitors. Many new desktop computers support dual monitors without requiring any additional hardware. Having two monitors will forever change the way you work with your computer. One thing to note is that LCD monitors are typically sized by their actual viewable diagonal measurement, but CRTs typically are not.


There are two types of Infrared touch screen monitor screens, the first reacts to infrared or thermal waves (heat), unfortunately this technology is slow and does not work well with cold hands or objects. The second type of Infrared touch screen monitors use vertical and horizontal infrared sensors around the perimeter of the touch screen. You can never have enough screen space, especially when organizing and working on your digital pictures. There are several different ways you can make use of this extra screen space when working at home or in your office. The wide screen format also helps to put more on screen for landscape mode images.

CRT type monitors are the traditional monitors that we have been using for years. LCD type monitors are based on a newer technology and are becoming very popular, mainly because they have great space and energy saving advantages over CRT monitors. CRT and LCD monitors are based on completely different technologies, and thus have quite different display characteristics.

There are hundreds of Adware deletion programs on the push. Your best bet is to go to a place like Spybot Download [] It lists the best Adware Removers presently on the push. Or just google the speak “adware remover”. Like I said, you’ll find hundreds. Some are good, some aren’t. Free Spybot [] is a great situate for you to see which ones work, but I know some of you just like to google, and that’s approval too ;). Just get one, I feel bad having to current so wholly for something so nominal.

Flat Screen Computer Monitors

New things often push aside older products. Flat-screen computer monitors have become the most sought-after display units due to their attractive flat panel feature. Their unique structure, combined with their performance, has made them popular across the globe.

CRT display panels or monitors are big, space-consuming things. Their old-fashioned cabinets are around twenty inches deep, and they occupy more space than their flat-screen competitors. The liquid crystals and transistors do all the work in a flat-screen monitor, which minimizes the need for a big case. Hence, when space is at a premium, the CRT monitor is bound to lose out to the flat-screen monitor.

Flat monitors can also serve as a replacement for your regular television. Although you can watch TV using your old CRT, you will have to install a TV tuner video card, and even then the quality of the picture is not that great. Besides, it can be bothersome to update your computer when you have a more convenient and attractive option available. Flat monitors are brighter and users find it easier to see the text on them.

Flat monitors consume less electricity and will definitely contribute towards savings in electricity bills. However, flat-screen monitors are still more expensive that CRT monitors. While prices have lowered considerably, they still have a long way to go before they can fully compete with the reasonably priced CRT monitors.

External Sound Cards

External sound cards pretty much work in the same principle as your internal audio card or the one that’s on the motherboard. They are capable of producing audio from the data transmitted by the processor. The only difference is they are mobile. An external audio card just needs to be connected via a USB cable for it to work.

An external audio card would come in handy when you want to have better audio quality for your laptop but space and temperature conditions doesn’t allow high-end internal sound cards. The good thing about getting a separate audio card is that this one is mobile. You can transfer it to another computer. Just make sure that you get one that has a plug and play functionality.

Just like with your internal sound card, you need to assess what you use the computer for before getting an external sound card. Usually, this audio card is used by movie buffs or music enthusiasts so if you’re the type who only does simple word processing on the computer, you may want to rethink getting your own external audio card.

External sound cards typically get connected via a USB port in the computer so it goes without saying that you need to make sure that your computer has enough slots to accommodate your sound card as well as the other peripherals that you have. Another thing to keep in mind is that you also need to make sure that your computer is properly updated. Just like the internal sound card, you may need to upgrade on your system so the external audio card can produce good audio quality.

Building Computers

You can save the thirty percent or more that custom shops charge for labor by building your own gaming rig. It can easily mean $300 that stays in your pocket to be used later for games, a better monitor, or whatever you want.

Is it hard to build a gamer?

The answer is “no”. Often, I’ve told people “There are only eleven major parts in a computer. Most of them snap together, or plug in. If you can connect just eleven items, then you can build a computer.”

Of course, a gamer does have differences from a general purpose computer. That’s what makes it a gamer. But does that make it harder to build?

Let’s say you want to build a Crossfire system with two graphics cards. It isn’t any harder to plug two graphics cards into their slots than to install one. Nor is it more difficult to install a dual core CPU. The chip drops into a zero insertion force slot. Push the lever down and it’s clamped into place. That’s it. A dual core system goes together just like a single core.

How about a big, fast hard drive? Again, there’s nothing different about how it goes in. Four screws hold it to the chassis. There’s a ribbon cable that connects it to the motherboard, and a line running to the power supply. Four screws, two plugs, and the installation is done.

Does all the cabling worry you? Almost all of the cables and wires you’ll hook up have plugs that are “keyed”, meaning they can only be inserted one way. To put it bluntly, they’re idiot proof. You can’t turn a power plug upside down so that electricity goes to the wrong post. It won’t fit that way.