Ultrasonic Transducers

The sound frequency used in these is usually in the range of one hundred kilohertz to fifty megahertz that is way above the normal human hearing range of twenty thousand hertz. Sound generated at these frequencies has a shorter wavelength that can reflect small surfaces and enable it to detect the defects inside solid materials such as metal and plastic.

These devices use Piezo or ferroelectric material as an active element to detect flaws by converting the excitation pulse (electrical energy) generated from the flaw detector into ultrasonic energy. The transducer’s performance is enhanced with the use of materials such as Piezo polymers and composites that are capable of producing different wave modes, by cutting the ceramics in different forms. These devices contain a backing component made from high density material to absorb the energy radiated from the active element’s back face, and control the vibration of the transducer. They also contain a wear plate made from corrosion resistant material such as steel order to protect the transducer element from the environment of testing.

The operations of these devices are based on the principles of piezoelectric effect or magneto restrictive effect for producing ultrasonic sound. Ultrasonic frequencies used in these devices are produced by combining the output of an electronic oscillator to a thin wafer or piezoelectric material like lead zirconate titanate.

Ultrasonic transducers are better than electronic sensors as they can be used in measuring and detecting object distances and detecting small objects from a long distance. They are also resistant to dust, dirt, moisture, and are not affected by external disturbances such as vibration, infrared radiation, ambient noise, and EMI radiation.

USB Flash Drive

Essentially the same, USB flash drives are available in a variety of styles and colors and even with various uses but all work the same. Marketed flash drives come in a range of sizes from 8 megabytes to, just recently, 256 megabytes – enough to hold digital pictures, a couple of hours worth of MP3s, or hundreds of documents. All of this comes at affordable prices, especially when looking at the generic USB flash drive brands.

Aside from its initial use, more and more manufacturers have made USB flash drives even more usable and can now be used as MP3 players, voice recorders or even FM tuners. There are even USB flash drives that function as wristwatches and others that may be used as pens.

USB flash drives reviews consider what most people take note of when purchasing their USB flash drives – capacity and function, speed, price, design, extra features, and sturdiness. Nowadays, micro or mini flash drives have been steadily increasing in popularity due to their storage capacity at a small price. Yet it is also primarily because of its size that these micro flash drives can easily slip out of your pocket and therefore, are best used as necklaces hung around the neck.

Considering the price per megabyte, a lot of pen drives offer a fairly cheaper price per megabyte but may offer less features than other larger flash drives. Metal encased flash drives may fetch a heftier price tag than its plastic encased counterparts but are more sturdy. Other flash drives also have pre-added extra functions for MP3 listening or even FM tuning, while others offer useful applications such as e-mail browsing and file synchronization, while there are still others that can offer all these pre-set advantages. Because flash drives are used to connect with a lot of computers, a lot of them now come with password protection for safety.

Keep in mind that the best USB flash drives cannot be solely determined by great reviews but more of how users intend to use it.

Solve Shut Down And Related Problems

Clients should be educated so they understand that if a computer is not shutting down properly, the underlying problem can lead to serious consequences.

The issue should be resolved, rather than just shutting off the computer and denying it power. Many times a system hangs during shutdown due to an application that is not properly releasing control or a runway process. These two problems can we solved with the help of selective startup and windows 2000 Task Manager.

At first, it may seen strange to use startup options to resolve a shutdown issue, but by selectively choosing which options are installed on your system during operation, one can isolate the problem. Windows 2000 offers task manager, a utility that is not available in windows 9x. Press Ctrl+Alt+Del while system is running, to access this utility. This utility lets you quickly see that how the system is using CPU and which applications and processes are running. If you see that CPU usage is extremely high, that means something is not running right on the system or system need more resources and need to be reconfigured. If you suspects and application is causing problem, close it and observe the changes in system resources.

If any program or process refuses to shut down normally, you can use Task Manager to shut it down. In windows 9z there is less functional close program utility that merely lets one end a specific task or shut down the computer.

Spectrum Analyzers

Generally, a spectrum analyzer is a device that measures and analyzes signals throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. The analyzer divides into parts signal and splits them into an amplitude component and a frequency component. You can find a variety of spectrum analyzers in the market. You have the subaudio, audio, and radio-frequency analyzers. You can also find spectrum analyzers that are intended to measure microwave and optical signals.

Aside from the kind of signals it measures, a spectrum analyzer can also be divided into analog, digital or hybrid. Digital spectrum analyzers usually handle more complex analysis and are used mainly with Fast Fourier Transform or FFT. Digital analyzers are able to transform the electrical or optical signals into components that are much smaller and a lot simpler. The differences of each model can be traced on the bandwidth range, sweep rates, frequency, and resolution.

Even before you buy a spectrum analyzer it is truly important that you conduct a thorough research on the various models. Since these devices do not come cheap, it would be best to determine which one is right for your application. It is best to read and study the machine’s features, images and specs and if possible conduct some trial tests with the spectrum analyzer to see if it is running and to see if it will be able to handle all your needs.

Meanwhile, when you start to notice that the measurements of your spectrum analyzer is way off that what it should be, you better bring your unit fin for recalibrations. You need to look for companies that perform calibrating, repairing and refurbishing of spectrum analyzers. There are several of them on the internet. And to ensure that you get the best service you should only rely on the services of experts. There are a couple of companies that comply with strict ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 17025 registration levels making them more than adept in performing repair works on your spectrum analyzers. When looking for such companies it is also best to study their turnaround policies and other services like 24-hour shipping of finished units.

Avoid Computer Eye Strain

Kinds of computer monitor

CRT or Cathode Ray Tube computer monitors are the most common. They are compatible with Macintosh and PC systems. Although bigger than other monitor types available, CRT monitors are still ideal for home and office use. They are also cheaper.

More expensive flat screen monitors have higher resolution, while LCD computer monitors have wider color ranges and high-contrast displays. For generating faster pixels, TFT computer monitors are available. Most of these computer monitors have built in speakers, mobile bases and security locks.

Your eyes and your monitor

Are you suffering from eyestrain from working long hours in front of a computer? Do not worry. This condition can easily be averted by adjusting your monitor as well as your usual work methods.

You can reduce eyestrain simply by adjusting the font quality and refresh rate of your computer. Make sure that your computer screen is slightly below your eyelevel and at least 20-26 inches from your eyes. Monitors are equipped with lighting systems which you can adjust to reduce glare or any reflections.

Proper cleaning is also important. Monitors that are clean and dust free are less likely to cause eye irritation.

Also take time to rest your eyes even for short periods. Walk away from your computer and look out the window. This can contribute a great deal in reducing computer strain.

Portable Handheld Lasers

First, what exactly are you looking to accomplish with your portable handheld laser pointer? Does the beam need to output over any set distance? What color frequency are you looking for and how much output power does your application require? These are all simple questions that you may want to answer before you start looking to shop for a portable pointer. Lasers are high-tech gadgets that can come with a hefty price tag, be sure that you are ready to do a little bit of research into any hand held module before you order one from a retailer. All portable lasers are not created equal! A little bit of knowledge about any particular handheld unit can not hurt your situation, in fact the more you know about the diode, casing, expected life time, etc., the better off we will be when we are looking to buy lasers.

There is a lot we can do to ensure that our purchasing experience does not leave us shocked or embarrassed in any way. You may have heard horror stories about hobbyists who would turn to eBay to buy their laser pointers, looking to save a few dollars here and there. The problem with this was that the units being sold on eBay turned out to be the lowest quality laser diodes available anywhere. There have been reports of people receiving completely broken pointers, or even worse, not receiving anything at all. When you look to save a few pennies, be sure that you are not buying something from a teenager in their basement with an eBay seller account, you will get burned! Your best bet whenever looking for any variety of handheld portables, or even industrial laser modules for that matter, is to work with a reputable retailer who specializes in the specific type that you are looking for.

More often than not, you will find that the cheapest laser pointer available is not going to be the best deal. These consistently burn out far quicker than the company had advertised, and usually a little rain or a drop of water will ruin the product for eternity. This is why its so important to know where your purchase is coming from, do a little research on the provider you are looking to work with. Are they visible anywhere on the search engines, like Google? How does their pricing compare to that of competing laser companies? Do they provide any support, in other words, can you get questions that you have answered?

High power portable lasers are investments, be sure that you are securing your investment with laser warranties and a high quality laser retailer with search engine recognition and various methods of customer service. Do not be afraid to ask the laser company a question or two, if you are going to buy lasers from them, be sure you are dealing with individuals who know what they are talking about. A few simple precautions along with a few Google searches can teach us a lot about any laser model or particular company. If you are serious about buying portable hand held lasers, do yourself a favor and look into the laser source as well as the model that intrigues your interest. A good laser should last for a life time of enjoyment.

Electronic Waste Recycling Methods

Sale

Online auctions offer an alternative for businesses and consumers looking for an opportunity to resell their used electronic. Online classified ads offer an ideal platform that links sellers to buyers.

As a result, businesses looking for a cost-effective technique of recycling large amounts of electronics opt to sell most of their e-waste. They have the option of selling their electronics to online auctions in exchange for a small fee.

Donation

Businesses and each consumer have the option of donating their electronics to charity. There are several charitable organizations that receive used and old electronics to give them to the needy, such as schools in the developing nations.

Take back

Some of the major computer manufacturers provide take back options. Therefore, before purchasing a product it is important to find out from the vendor if they provide recycling services.

Once your electronic has outlived its useful life, you can make arrangements for the manufacturer to come and pick it. Alternatively, you can mail your old electronic. The recycling option can be offered for a free or a small fee.

Exchange

Some manufacturers offer the option for exchange. When you buy a new product from them they can take back your old electronic. Most of these companies buy and recycle all types of brands of e-waste from corporations and people, including broken and working notebook computers and laptops. Exchange programs for smaller electronics, such as Smartphones and laptops are popular.

Scrapping/recycling

Interestingly, e-waste contains very precious metals that can be reused in other electronics, new or refurbished. For example, old computer are often dismantled and valuable components derived for use in other working computers.

Toner Cartridges

The actual particle size of toner comes about 12 micrometers. When image resolution was enhanced to 600 dots per inch, any how, the particle dimension was condensed to 8 micrometers. Further reductions in size would be essential for developments in resolution. Toner cartridges manufacturers preserve an excellence control standard for actual particle size in order to create a powder appropriate for use in their printers; the actual particle size in the product is not really allowed to vary too much from the essential dimension.

Toner has usually been made by compounding the ingredients and making a slab that was broken or palletized and then turned it into a fine dry toner powder with a controlled actual particle size variety by air jet milling. This procedure resulted in toner cartridge a granule that, if looked via microscope, displayed different sizes and jagged shapes. To get a best print, some ink/toner companies are using a chemical procedure to grow toner particles. This results in size that is more consistent and consistent shapes of toner cartridges particles. The resulting lesser uniform shapes allow more precise color reproduction and well-organized toner use.

In earlier toner cartridge machines toner was poured by the user from a bottle into a tank in the machine. Modern toner machines feed straight from a cartridge. Empty toner cartridges are frequently refilled by third party vendors.

Toner could even be washed off skin or garments with chill water. Hot or warm water would soften the toner, causing it blend to the toner material it is on. Toner fused to skin would weaken in time, or could be partly removed using rough hand cleaners. Toner fused to clothing cannot normally be removed.

Ultrasonic Welding

The ultrasonic welding process offers many advantages over other welding techniques and is most commonly used in manufacturing wire harnesses, electronic components, and appliances. Ultrasonic welding is used when multiple layers of foil need to be welded onto a terminal or welded together with different combination of metals such as copper, aluminum, lithium, and nickel.

Ultrasonic welding uses a “low power friction” welding process in which little heat is generated and better control can be applied. The basic idea is to scrub work pieces across each other while clamped under pressure to create a bond. Work pieces are placed on an anvil that is knurled with fine ridges that bite into the material, holding it in place during the weld process. The ultrasonic tool is then lowered onto the pieces, clamping them under pressure and creating the needed scrubbing action. This tool vibrates at a frequency of twenty kilohertz for most welding operations and around forty kilohertz for low power applications.

The scrubbing motion helps in dispersing oxide layers and other impurities at the boundary until the base metals are in direct contact. The atoms of the work pieces then diffuse into each other, creating a purely metallurgical bond.

Ultrasonic welding techniques are used in different industrial sectors such as pharmaceutical, medical, food, cosmetic, and household and personal care manufacturing. They have enabled the ironing out of minor flaws in products during the production process, which if left unchecked, can damage the brand value of a product or company.

Hidden Hindrance to Virtualization Performance

More specifically, it is the creation of one or more virtual instances of a “guest” operating system on top of a “host” operating system, or in some cases directly on top of a specialized software layer. It allows numerous virtual machines, either standard PCs or servers, to operate and appear as independent machines when in fact they’re operating off of a single hardware platform.

Many software providers from large to small are in the race to offer virtualization solutions, and many enterprises are taking advantage. While this futuristic technology certainly offers many benefits, it has one critical challenge to its overall performance–disk file fragmentation.

File fragmentation–the splitting of files into pieces (fragments) in order to better utilize disk space–is a performance challenge in non-virtual environments, and has been for many years. But virtualization brings with it even more critical fragmentation issues, requiring solutions like never before.

The key to understanding fragmentation’s impact on virtualization lies within the word “virtual” itself. For storage, virtual machines are making use of hard drive partitions which appear as entire drives dedicated to the virtual machines. But underneath the “virtual” layer, the hardware is storing files the way it always has, utilizing an entire disk and fragmenting files from all partitions across the whole disk.

Virtual machines have their own I/O requests which are passed along to the host system. Hence, multiple I/O requests are occurring for each file request–minimally, one request for the guest system, then another for the host system. But in a common fragmentation scenario, especially with virtual servers creating high amounts of disk activity, files will be fragmented in to tens, hundreds or even thousands of fragments. Imagine the frantic activity with multiple I/Os for each fragment of each and every file requested. The impact on performance is horrendous.

With virtualization, regular defragmentation is vital–but so is the fragmentation technology utilized. Basic defragmentation, even scheduled defragmentation, cannot possibly keep up with the fragmentation rates of virtualization. The best possible solution, one which is only now becoming available, is a constant background defragmentation solution which has no impact on system resources.